1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy by Gavin Menzies

By Gavin Menzies

The brilliance of the Renaissance laid the root of the trendy global. Textbooks let us know that it took place because of a rediscovery of the guidelines and beliefs of classical Greece and Rome. yet now bestselling historian Gavin Menzies makes the startling argument that during the 12 months 1434, China—then the world's such a lot technologically complicated civilization—provided the spark that set the eu Renaissance ablaze. From that date onward, Europeans embraced chinese language principles, discoveries, and innovations, all of which shape the root of Western civilization this present day.

The New York Times bestselling writer of 1421 combines a long-overdue old reexamination with the buzz of an investigative experience, bringing the reader aboard the extraordinary chinese language fleet because it sails from China to Cairo and Florence, after which again internationally. Erudite and brilliantly reasoned, 1434 will switch the way in which we see ourselves, our heritage, and our global.

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Published in 1613, the same year as The Duchess of Malfi, The Insatiate Countess is almost an inversion of Webster's play, Women's Bodies 25 with Isabella too retaining her title after her marriage and finding herself similarly surrounded by a medicalised culture. (One character is actually called Mizaldus, the Latin version of Mizauld, the physician whose prescriptions are cited in The Changeling, which gives a brilliantly ironic edge to his wife's remark, 'belike you know I am with child'). 14S).

With the accession of James I, however, many of these possibilities were abruptly closed down. The king had little time for his wife or even for Elizabeth, his clever, lively daughter; now the door to the Privy Chamber was open only to attractive young men, and a woman like Lady Anne Clifford, struggling for her estates against the patriarchal imperatives of her husband and uncle, found no support from the king. The dominant celebratory images of women produced in this period were all of dead women - the tombs in Westminster Abbey of Elizabeth I, of James's mother Mary, and of his two infant daughters Anne and Sophia - and while masques continued to glorify (in an arguably qualified way) the queen, Anne of Denmark, the characteristic image of women at court in Jacobean drama is of beleaguered creatures, judged only in terms of their appearance and sexuality, and beset by temptations on all sides.

With the accession of James I, however, many of these possibilities were abruptly closed down. The king had little time for his wife or even for Elizabeth, his clever, lively daughter; now the door to the Privy Chamber was open only to attractive young men, and a woman like Lady Anne Clifford, struggling for her estates against the patriarchal imperatives of her husband and uncle, found no support from the king. The dominant celebratory images of women produced in this period were all of dead women - the tombs in Westminster Abbey of Elizabeth I, of James's mother Mary, and of his two infant daughters Anne and Sophia - and while masques continued to glorify (in an arguably qualified way) the queen, Anne of Denmark, the characteristic image of women at court in Jacobean drama is of beleaguered creatures, judged only in terms of their appearance and sexuality, and beset by temptations on all sides.

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