ACI 305R-10: Guide to Hot Weather Concreting by ACI Committee 305

By ACI Committee 305

Environmental elements, resembling excessive ambient temperature, low humidity, excessive wind, or either low humidity and excessive wind, impact concrete homes and the development operations of combining, transporting, and putting of the concrete fabrics. This consultant presents measures that may be taken to lessen the bad results of those environmental components and decrease the opportunity of critical problems.

This consultant defines sizzling climate, discusses capability difficulties, and offers practices meant to lessen them. those practices comprise settling on fabrics and proportions, precooling parts, and batching. different issues mentioned comprise size of haul, attention of concrete temperature as put, amenities for dealing with concrete on the website, and, in the course of the early curing interval, putting and curing concepts, and applicable trying out and inspection approaches in sizzling climatic conditions. The fabrics, procedures, qc measures, and inspections defined during this rfile may be confirmed, monitored, or played as appropriate in simple terms by way of members protecting the perfect ACI certifications or an identical.

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C’est lui encore qui, le premier, utilisa des graphiques pour représenter les données météorologiques. Horace Bénédicte de Saussure s’était aussi passionné pour les questions d’humidité et, en 1783, il publia le résultat de ses recherches pour lesquelles il utilisa un hygromètre à cheveu. De Saussure trouva que la longueur d’un cheveu varie d’environ 2,5 % entre les deux extrêmes d’humidité ; un système convenable de leviers permet d’amplifier cette différence et un cadran indique le degré d’humidité.

Ce sont les noyaux de condensation qui sont les agents initiateurs du processus : c’est sur eux que la vapeur d’eau se condense pour former une gouttelette. Ces noyaux, dont la dimension est d’environ 1/10 000 mm, ont des origines diverses (fumée, poussières, sel marin) et leur concentration dans l’air varie beaucoup. On en compte plus de 10 000 par cm3 sur les continents alors que près de la mer on en dénombre de 100 à 1 000 par cm3. Dans l’atmosphère, on retrouve aussi, mais en moins grand nombre, des noyaux glaçogènes qui engendrent la croissance des cristaux de glace.

Il est bien connu que les pentes montagneuses exposées au sud sont les premières à se départir de leur couvert nival au printemps alors que l’on fait encore du ski sur les pentes nord. Les chaînes de montagnes ont aussi une importance primordiale sur le climat en modifiant l’écoulement de l’air et en favorisant la précipitation sur leur versant exposé au vent. On voit donc que l’ensemble des facteurs astronomique, physique et géographique influent sur le climat d’une région particulière. Sur le plan de la répartition de l’énergie solaire, les régions équatoriales sont favorisées par rapport aux régions nordiques.

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