By Franklin E. Zimring
American Juvenile Justice is a definitive quantity for classes at the criminology and coverage research of youth. the point of interest is at the ideas and coverage of a separate and special procedure of adlescent justice. The publication opens with an creation of the construction of early life, providing a justification for the class of the juvenile or a interval of partial accountability earlier than complete maturity. next sections comprise empirical investigations of the character of teenage illegal activity and felony coverage towards adolescence crime. on the middle of the ebook is an issue for a penal coverage that acknowledges decreased accountability and a early life coverage that emphasizes the advantages of letting the maturing approach proceed with minimum interruption. The e-book concludes with functions of the center issues to 5 particular areas of difficulty in present juvenile justice: teenager being pregnant, move to felony court docket, minority overrepresentation, juvenile gun use, and adolescence murder.
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Under such treatment they developed rapidly, and the natural 36 A RATIONALE FOR AMERICAN JUVENILE JUSTICE result was that they were thus educated in crime and when discharged were well ﬁtted to become the expert criminals and outlaws who have crowded our penitentiaries and jails. The State had educated innocent children in crime, and the harvest was great. The condition in Chicago became so bad that all who were cognizant of this condition and were interested in correcting it sought a remedy. ”4 A similar rhetoric is reﬂected in accounts of the criminal justice system issued before and after the founding of the court by every one of the major public ﬁgures in the movement.
29 This page intentionally left blank Part II A RATIONALE FOR AMERICAN JUVENILE JUSTICE The two essays in this part deal with the central mission of the juvenile court in delinquency cases and with those aspects of youthfulness that require separate policy from any legal institutions that deal responsibly with youth crime. Chapter 4 is a revisionist history of the juvenile court. I argue that the juvenile court was founded not mainly as a means of facilitating intervention in the lives of young offenders but rather as a means of diverting juveniles under arrest from the harms inﬂicted by jails and criminal courts.
The arrogance of unqualiﬁed judicial power was not necessary to this version of the court’s purposes. After In re Gault in 1967, diversion was the approved version of juvenile justice in the United States and probably in the rest of the developed world. Some juvenile court judges might have shed a tear at the way Abe Fortas deconstructed the interventionist facade of juvenile courts, but the Gault majority did not undo or completely reorient the court that Grace Abbott, Julia Lathrop, and Jane Addams supported.