America's Climate Choices by National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life

By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee on America's Climate Choices

Weather switch is going on. it's very most probably because of the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions, and poses major hazards for a number human and typical platforms. And those emissions proceed to extend, in order to bring about additional swap and bigger hazards. America's weather offerings makes the case that the environmental, financial, and humanitarian hazards posed by means of weather switch point out a urgent desire for tremendous motion now to restrict the value of weather swap and to arrange for adapting to its affects. even if there's a few uncertainty approximately destiny hazard, performing now will lessen the dangers posed by way of weather switch and the strain to make better, extra fast, and almost certainly dearer rate reductions later. such a lot activities taken to minimize vulnerability to weather switch affects are good judgment investments that might provide defense opposed to typical weather diversifications and severe occasions. moreover, the most important funding judgements made now approximately gear and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gasoline emissions for many years to return. eventually, whereas it can be attainable to reduce or opposite many responses to weather switch, it's tricky or most unlikely to "undo" weather swap, as soon as manifested. present efforts of neighborhood, nation, and private-sector actors are vital, yet probably not to yield growth corresponding to what can be accomplished with the addition of sturdy federal rules that determine coherent nationwide objectives and incentives, and that advertise robust U.S. engagement in international-level reaction efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of weather swap are most sensible met via making use of an iterative probability administration framework and making efforts to seriously decrease greenhouse fuel emissions; organize for adapting to affects; put money into clinical learn, know-how improvement, and data platforms; and facilitate engagement among medical and technical specialists and the various kinds of stakeholders making America's weather offerings.

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America's Climate Choices

Weather switch is going on. it's very most probably brought on by the emission of greenhouse gases from human actions, and poses major dangers for a number human and average structures. And those emissions proceed to extend, as a way to bring about extra swap and bigger dangers. America's weather offerings makes the case that the environmental, fiscal, and humanitarian hazards posed by way of weather swap point out a urgent want for tremendous motion now to restrict the significance of weather switch and to organize for adapting to its affects.

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There are often strong economic pressures to continue use of such equipment and infrastructure, rather than retrofitting or replacing with a lower-emitting option. 4 Risks, judgments about risk, and adaptation needs are highly variable across different contexts. Different regions, economic and resource sectors, and populations will experience different impacts from climate change, will vary in their ability to tolerate and adapt to such impacts, and will hence differ in their judgments about the potential risks posed by climate change.

New York: Plenum, 1980); O. Renn, Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World (London: Earthscan, 2008). b P. Slovic, B. Fischhoff, and S. 2), with deforestation and other land use and land cover changes also contributing. 11 16 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 1 Global surface temperature change from 1880 to 2010, reported as a deviation from the 1951-1980 average. The black curve shows the globally and annually averaged near-surface temperature derived from a variety of instruments including thermometers, satellites, and various ocean sensors, all carefully calibrated and quality-controlled to remove errors.

America's Climate Choices The Context for America’s Climate Choices ern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord). The California Global Warming Solutions Act (AB32) enacted a sweeping set of GHG emission control programs for the state (and it survived a ballot proposition to repeal the Act in 2010). , the Climate Registry, the California Climate Action Registry, the Carbon Disclosure Project of ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability). 16 Adaptation strategies are being explored in climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and water resources management, which have historically adapted to natural climate variability in ways that may reduce vulnerabilities to climate change.

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