By Wolfgang Demtröder
This creation to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been constructed over the past centuries via many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical part through the advent of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.
It illustrates the wave version of debris by means of many examples and exhibits the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its power for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as sleek spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.
Many examples and issues of strategies may still set off the reader to an extreme energetic cooperation.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics
When the chamber is illuminated by visible light, the droplets cause Mie-scattering which makes the particle track visible as a thin bright spur of tiny water droplets (Fig. 21). Although the observation of the different tracks in the cloud chamber is impressive, it does not allow a direct view of the incident particles themselves but only locates their paths through the chamber. In former times the cloud chamber was used for the observation of nuclear reactions (see the example in Fig. 21). Nowadays a new device, the bubble chamber, has replaced it and the cloud chamber is mainly used for demonstration purposes.
1). This process represents the leading mechanism for the production of ions in the upper atmosphere (ionosphere). Here the UV light of the sun can ionize nearly all atoms and molecules in this region. Since the photoionization cross section is generally small, efﬁcient photoionization of atoms demands high light intensities in the UV. This process therefore gained increasing importance after the introduction of lasers, which can deliver intensities many orders of magnitude larger than conventional light sources (see Chap.
Each direction is equally probable. Since the pressure of the gas is isotropic the momentum transfer must be the same in all directions. Therefore we obtain for the mean square values v2x = vy vx Fig. 15. 3. Can One See Atoms? velocity components within the interval vx to vx + dvx . 30) p = n 2m v2x = nm v2x , 2 where n is the total number density. 29) v2x = v2y = v2z = 1 2 v . 32) where E kin = (m/2)v2 is the mean kinetic energy of each molecule. Using the relation n = N/V this can also be written as 2 p = n · E kin .