Autobiographical Memory and the Validity of Retrospective by Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman

By Norbert Schwarz, Seymour Sudman

Autobiographical reminiscence and the Validity of Retrospective Reports offers the collaborative efforts of cognitive psychologists and examine methodologists within the quarter of autobiographical reminiscence. The editors have incorporated an esteemed team of researchers whose paintings covers a variety of matters relating to autobiographical reminiscence and the validity of retrospective experiences, reflecting the varied traditions in cognitive psychology and survey learn. the 1st a part of the ebook presents varied theoretical views on retrospective studies, in addition to helping experimental proof. the second one a part of this quantity focuses particularly on retrospective reviews of behaviors, together with bear in mind of the frequency and depth of actual discomfort, of the variety of cigarettes smoked, of nutritional conduct, and of kid aid funds. the next sections deal with the cognitive tactics fascinated about occasion relationship and time estimation, and a dialogue of the diversities among self and proxy studies. the ultimate half extends the dialogue of autobiographical stories in several instructions, together with the impression of autobiographical stories on participants' evaluation in their present existence, the evaluate of social switch at the foundation of retrospective stories, and the problem of collective thoughts. This e-book, an integral and well timed source for researchers and scholars of cognitive psychology in addition to to survey methodologists and statisticians, demonstrates the huge growth made in figuring out the cognitive dynamics of retrospective reports.

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As described above, when subjects recalled their experiences, they wrote a two-word label to represent the experience. Subsequent to episode recall, the subjects transferred the labels onto TAl sheets and then completed the inventories. The percentage of attributes retrieved for each memory was computed. 1 as a function of the attribute categories, retrieval mode (direct or inferential), and retention interval. ) An analysis of variance found overall main effects for attributes, retrieval mode, and retention interval.

Thus, although reliability does not ensure validity, the substantial reliability of retrieval reports at least makes it possible that these reports would turn out to be valid. 36 2. The Validity of Retrospective Reports Establishing the validity of autobiographical memories is a difficult and important topic. One fundamental issue that was investigated early was whether the attributes on which subjects reported were indeed appropriate for the memories retrieved. Gelfand (1983) examined the intercorrelations among the attributes on the Trace Attribute Inventory and found that these intercorrelations were generally low and nonsignificant; thus, the attribute reports were independent as assumed for the different kinds of attributes.

1905). For some memories, such as material that is well memorized, attributes of the material items may be directly retrieved. For other memories, such as a prose passage, a story, or an event, the attributes of the memory may be inferred or constructed (Bartlett, 1932; Hasher & Griffin, 1978; Means & Loftus, 1991; Neisser, 1967; Reder, 1987a). Direct retrievals occur automatically, whereas inferential retrievals are the result of an effortful process (Hasher & Zacks, 1979). Of course, retrieval of a particular memory most likely involves both direct retrieval and inference, such that certain attributes are directly retrieved and others are inferred.

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