Basic Principles of Textile Coloration by Arthur D. Broadbent

By Arthur D. Broadbent

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What is the nature of this kind of force? It is a kind of bonding. Like covalent and ionic bonding, these forces originate from the mutual attraction of negatively charged electrons in an atom in one molecule for positively charged nuclei of atoms in a neighbouring molecule. These attractive forces, however, only operate over short distances and are generally quite weak. They therefore lack the relative stability of ionic and covalent bonds. p65 42 27/07/01, 10:09 INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 43 forces are responsible for many phenomena in textile chemistry, including the coherence of the crystalline regions in fibres, and even the dyeing process itself.

The sizing washed out of a woven fabric is often discarded, so it must be cheap and have minimal environmental impact. Washing liquors from desizing contain substantial quantities of organic chemicals that cause an important pollution problem. They are mostly biodegradable, but this consumes considerable amounts of dissolved oxygen from the water, which adversely affects the local ecosystem. 1), have spurred developments in water treatment, and in the use of sizes that can be recovered from the washing liquors and re-used.

To avoid excessive abrasion and yarn breakage, the warp yarns usually have a greater twist and a smooth film of size coating their entire length to reinforce them. Sizing chemicals of various types are used depending upon the kinds of fibres present. Good size adhesion on cotton, which has a polar hydrophilic surface, requires use of a polar hydrophilic polymer such as starch. For the hydrophobic surfaces of synthetic fibres, less polar synthetic polymer sizes are preferred. 3), as well as wax lubricants, anti-static agents, preservatives, emulsifying agents, and anti-foaming agents.

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