Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: by National Research Council (U. S.) Commit

By National Research Council (U. S.) Commit

Bioavailability refers back to the quantity to which people and ecological receptors are uncovered to contaminants in soil or sediment. the idea that of bioavailability has lately piqued the curiosity of the dangerous waste as an immense attention in finding out how a lot waste to scrub up. the explanation is if contaminants in soil and sediment will not be bioavailable, then extra contaminant mass could be left in position with no growing extra danger. a brand new NRC record notes that the potential of the glory of bioavailability to persuade decision-making is maximum the place convinced chemical, environmental, and regulatory components align. the present use of bioavailability in hazard evaluation and dangerous waste cleanup laws is demystified, and appropriate instruments and types for bioavailability evaluation are mentioned and ranked in accordance with seven standards. eventually, the intimate hyperlink among bioavailability and bioremediation is explored. The document concludes with feedback for relocating bioavailability ahead within the regulatory enviornment for either soil and sediment cleanup.

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Extra info for Bioavailability of Contaminants in Soils and Sediments: Processes, Tools, and Applications

Example text

Bioconcentration is accumulation of a chemical directly from the dissolved phase through the gills and epithelial tissues of an aquatic organism. Biomagnification is the process by which bioaccumulation causes an increase in tissue concentrations from one trophic level to the next from food to consumer. Rand and Petrocelli, 1985; Schnoor, 1996; EPA, 2000a Bioavailable fraction is that portion of the bulk concentration that is available to be accumulated into an organism under a defined set of conditions.

Other forms of the metal bound in precipitates or covalent or hydrogen bonded to other ions would not be available. 0. The available fraction determines the reactive portion of the total mass of material, much like the activity coefficient relates activity to concentration. , soil, dust, wood) in the gastrointestinal tract and is available for absorption. The bioaccessible fraction is not necessarily equal to the RAF (or RBA) but depends on the relation between results from a particular in vitro test system and an appropriate in vivo model.

The bioaccessible fraction is not necessarily equal to the RAF (or RBA) but depends on the relation between results from a particular in vitro test system and an appropriate in vivo model. , 1997 Biostabilization refers to the biodegradation of the more labile HOC (hydrophobic organic compound) fraction leaving a residual that is much less available and mobile. ” absorbed and able to reach systemic circulation in an organism. Another view of bioavailability is represented by a chemical crossing a cell membrane, entering a cell, and becoming available at a site of biological activity.

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