BIOS Instant Notes in Organic Chemistry by Graham Patrick

By Graham Patrick

Instant Notes in natural Chemistry moment version condenses the necessities of natural chemistry right into a conceivable textual content. It concentrates exclusively at the fundamentals with out going into exhaustive aspect or repetitive examples, with the foremost notes initially of every subject focusing the brain at the necessities. the 1st six sections conceal constitution, bonding, sensible teams, stereochemistry, and easy response and mechanism concept. the remainder of the e-book appears on the reactions and mechanisms of the typical sensible teams vital in chemistry and biochemistry, with an extra part on spectroscopy and research.

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15. (a) 3-Methyl-2-butanone; (b) 2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanone; (c) 4-ethyl-3-methyl-2hexanone; (d) 3-methylcyclohexanone. O a) b) O 4 CH2 H 1 2 3 2 3 CH3 1 H 4 5 Fig. 16. (a) Butanal; (b) 2-ethylpentanal. C5 – Nomenclature of functional groups 41 Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids and acid chlorides are identified by adding the suffix -anoic acid and acid chlorides and -anoyl chloride respectively. Both these functional groups are always at the end of the main chain and do not need to be numbered (Fig.

4. R c) X R C H X R Alcohols and alkyl halides; (a) primary; (b) secondary; (c) tertiary. The following examples (Fig. 5) illustrate different types of alcohols and alkyl halides. a) 1o H3C d) b) Br Br H3C H3C e) CH3 1o H3C 2o 2o Br 3o CH3 H3C f) OH OH H3C c) CH3 CH3 CH3 OH 3o CH3 H3C CH3 Fig. 5. (a) 1Њ alkyl bromide; (b) 2Њ alkyl bromide; (c) 3Њ alkyl bromide; (d) 1Њ alcohol; (e) 2Њ alcohol; (f) 3Њ alcohol. Section D – Stereochemistry D1 CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERS Key Notes Introduction Isomers are compounds which have the same molecular formula, but differ in the way the atoms are arranged.

Alcohols Alcohols or alkanols are identified by using the suffix -anol. The general rules described earlier can be used to name alcohols (Fig. 13). CH3 CH H3C CH3 OH OH CH CH2 CH3 Substituent 5 4 3 2 CH3 1 main chain suffix for functional group 4-Methyl-2-pentanol Position Position Fig. 13. 4-Methyl-2-pentanol. 40 Ethers and alkyl halides Section C – Functional groups The nomenclature for these compounds is slightly different from previous examples in that the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain.

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