By Hari G. Garg, Mary K. Cowman, Charles A. Hales
The discovering by way of Emil Fischer that glucose and fructose on remedy with phenylhydrazine gave the same osazone led him to the elucidation of stereochemistry of carbohydrates. in view that then, growth within the box of carbohydrates has been striking with the unraveling their uncomplicated constitution, biosynthesis, immunology, capabilities, and scientific makes use of, for natural carbohydrates and for protein-linked carbohydrates (glycoproteins and proteoglycans). The chapters during this ebook current a logical series top from the chemistry and biochemistry of carbohydrates, by means of their position in numerous pathological stipulations, to carbohydrates as power healing and diagnostic brokers. This ebook deals an in depth panoramic assessment of the chemistry and biology of carbohydrates for chemists, biologists and future health execs. every one bankruptcy is authored through participants professional within the specific region of study.
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Extra info for Carbohydrate Chemistry, Biology and Medical Applications
The seminal 1958 paper by Lemieux et al. (117), 18 D. Horton introducing proton NMR in the study of acetylated aldoses, demonstrated that the proton at the anomeric position gives its signal at a distinctive field position as a doublet through coupling with its vicinal neighbor at C-2. The magnitude of this coupling reflects the dihedral angle between H-1 and H-2, permitting assignment of favored conformation for pyranose sugars. Much of the early proton NMR studies have been discussed by Hall (118,119) and their implications in understanding the conformational behavior of sugars have been reviewed (120).
Structural Features of N-linked Glycans As shown in Fig. 2, N-linked glycans are attached to the amide nitrogens (N) of asparagine side chains, and the glycosylated residues are almost invariably found in the sequences Asn-Xxx-Ser (NXS) or Asn-Xxx-Thr (NXT), where Xxx (X) can be any amino acid except proline. In animal cells, the monosaccharide linked to an asparagine residue is inevitably GlcNAc, and the diverse N-linked glycans have a common core structure Man3GlcNAc2 attached to Asn but differ in the terminal elaborations that extend from this trimannosyl core, as shown in Fig.
72. 73. 74. 75. D. Horton Carbohydrates and their Derivatives, Including Tannins, Cellulose, and Related Lignins. Pergamon Elsevier, Oxford, 1999; Vol. 3, pp 179–239. Morrison DC and Ryan JL, eds. Bacterial Endotoxic Lipopolysaccharides,Vol 1: Molecular Biochemistry and Cellular Biology: CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1992; Vol. 1:449. Arrhenius S. Z Phys Chem (Leipzig) 1889; 4:226–248. Clarke MA, Edye LA, Eggleston G. Sucrose decomposition in aqueous solution. Adv Carbohydr Chem Biochem 1997; 52:441–470.