By Jinghai Li
Multi-scale research and simulation of chemical processing and reactions have acquired unparalleled cognizance lately; although, size expertise involved in multi-scale buildings, quite on meso-scale phenomena, has now not been sufficiently addressed. This quantity of Advances in Chemical Engineering specializes in the "Characterization of circulate, debris and Interfaces" to alert the chemical engineering group to this hard factor offering six meso-scale dimension applied sciences.
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Extra info for Characterization of Flow, Particles and Interfaces
In the case of Feng and Yang (1973), the constitutive equations were based on a Mooney–Rivlin model previously used to describe rubber material properties. On the other hand, Lardner and Pujara (1980) employed a Skalak–Tozeren–Zarda–Chien (STZC) material relationship. These relationships have been used to represent the material properties of RBCs and sea urchin eggs. Cheng (1987a) gave a generalised Hooke’s law strain energy function, which allows various ways of deriving the strain energy function to be considered.
The governing equations corrected from those presented by Lardner and Pujara (1980) are defined as Contact region: f3 dl1 l1 l1 À l2 cos c f 2 À (23) ¼À dc l2 sin c f 1 f1 sin c dl2 l1 À l2 cos c ¼ dc sin c (24) where f1, f2 and f3 are functions of the principal tensions and are defined later. Figure 10 Geometry of a thin-walled spherical cell under compression as represented by the elastic membrane model. (a) Compound view showing the upper half of the cell corresponding to the positive Z axis of a cell under compression.
Cerevisiae) have been widely used to produce many biological products. If these products cannot be engineered to be secreted from the cells, disruption is necessary to release the intracellular contents. A common unit operation for this purpose at industrial scale is high-pressure homogenisation (Middelberg, 1995). Modelling and optimisation of this process has been restrained by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms of cell breakage, which has arisen because of a lack of cell mechanical property information.