Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century: Bridging Boundaries by Carsten Reinhardt, Roald Hoffmann

By Carsten Reinhardt, Roald Hoffmann

Chemistry within the final century was once characterised via extraordinary progress and advances, encouraged through progressive theories and experimental breakthroughs. but, regardless of this fast improvement, the historical past of this medical self-discipline has accomplished only in the near past the prestige essential to comprehend the consequences of chemistry at the medical and technologicalculture of the fashionable world.This booklet addresses the bridging of obstacles among chemistry and the opposite "classical" disciplines of technological know-how, physics and biology in addition to the connections of chemistry tomathematics and technology.Chemical examine is represented as an interconnected patchwork of medical specialties, and this is often proven by way of a mix of case stories and broader overviews at the heritage of natural chemistry, theoretical chemistry, nuclear- and cosmochemistry, stable kingdom chemistry, and biotechnology. All of those fields have been on the middle of the advance of 20th century chemistry, and the authors disguise an important issues corresponding to the emergence of recent subdisciplines andresearch fields, the science-technology dating, and nationwide sorts of medical work.This monograph represents a distinct treasure trove for basic historians and historians of technology, whereas additionally beautiful tothose drawn to the theoretical heritage and improvement of recent chemistry.

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28] Barnes, who had undertaken research at the University of Berlin in the early 1930s, was head of the Physics Department at Stamford. Both men were present at the October 1943 meeting of the Optical Society of America on infrared spectroscopy and subsequently were among the principal participants in the development and use of spectrophotometers. Numerous publications, for instance in The Review of Scient$c Instruments, Journal of Applied Physics, and Analytical Chemistry, documented American Cyanamid’s cutting-edge studies, and showed how disciplinary boundaries were continually crossed as optics and electronics interacted with chemistry.

The origins of bioorganic chemistry can be traced to the work of German organic chemists on biological molecules around the beginning of the twentieth century. Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927), who had trained in medicine but always did his research in organic chemistry, laid the foundations of nucleotide chemistry in the 1880s and 1890s. He realized that nucleic acids were a combination of purines and pyrimidines with sugars and, although he identified some of the bases, he was unable to determine the structure of the sugars.

Beckman’s first commercial infrared spectrometer, the IR-1, was developed in 1942 and was used by the wartime synthetic rubber research program. However, the classified nature of this and similar work meant that Beckman spectrometers were not generally available until 1945, when the IR-2 was marketed. Meanwhile, in Britain, Adam Hilger and Grubb Parsons independ- I 23 24 I 7. Research Fieids and Boundaries in Twentieth-Century Organic Chemistry ently developed double-beam instruments. The Hilger instrument was closely modeled on the design of MIT physicist Arthur C.

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