By Vanderah T.A.(ed)
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15. (a) 3-Methyl-2-butanone; (b) 2,2-dimethyl-3-pentanone; (c) 4-ethyl-3-methyl-2hexanone; (d) 3-methylcyclohexanone. O a) b) O 4 CH2 H 1 2 3 2 3 CH3 1 H 4 5 Fig. 16. (a) Butanal; (b) 2-ethylpentanal. C5 – Nomenclature of functional groups 41 Carboxylic acids Carboxylic acids and acid chlorides are identiﬁed by adding the sufﬁx -anoic acid and acid chlorides and -anoyl chloride respectively. Both these functional groups are always at the end of the main chain and do not need to be numbered (Fig.
4. R c) X R C H X R Alcohols and alkyl halides; (a) primary; (b) secondary; (c) tertiary. The following examples (Fig. 5) illustrate different types of alcohols and alkyl halides. a) 1o H3C d) b) Br Br H3C H3C e) CH3 1o H3C 2o 2o Br 3o CH3 H3C f) OH OH H3C c) CH3 CH3 CH3 OH 3o CH3 H3C CH3 Fig. 5. (a) 1Њ alkyl bromide; (b) 2Њ alkyl bromide; (c) 3Њ alkyl bromide; (d) 1Њ alcohol; (e) 2Њ alcohol; (f) 3Њ alcohol. Section D – Stereochemistry D1 CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERS Key Notes Introduction Isomers are compounds which have the same molecular formula, but differ in the way the atoms are arranged.
Alcohols Alcohols or alkanols are identiﬁed by using the sufﬁx -anol. The general rules described earlier can be used to name alcohols (Fig. 13). CH3 CH H3C CH3 OH OH CH CH2 CH3 Substituent 5 4 3 2 CH3 1 main chain suffix for functional group 4-Methyl-2-pentanol Position Position Fig. 13. 4-Methyl-2-pentanol. 40 Ethers and alkyl halides Section C – Functional groups The nomenclature for these compounds is slightly different from previous examples in that the functional group is considered to be a substituent of the main alkane chain.