By Arie S. Issar
Complete evaluate of results of weather variability on hydrological and human structures within the Holocene.
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Extra resources for Climate Changes During the Holocene and their Impact on Hydrological Systems
55 ka BP), all sites of the MB III in Canaan show signs of destruction (Dever, 1987). The massive fortiﬁcations could not stop the Egyptians troops, who pursued the Hyksos on their way back to their homeland. It is reasonable to think that the rulers of Canaan and Syria, who were allies of the Hyksos, opposed the Pharaohs of the Seventeenth and the Eighteenth Dynasty and cooperated with the Hyksos (Dever, 1985b; Neeman, 1982; Weinstein, 1981). The Egyptian invasions led to disaster and disorder.
5 ka BP). It seems that the main reason for the massive fortiﬁcation was mutual hostility between local city-states, as well as the threat of outside invasion (Dever, 1987). Although the MB is considered as an urban period, and the walled cities characterized this era, the peasants and agriculture systems were still very important components of the social structure. The economy was based on agriculture, with some local crafts, domestic industry and trade in luxury items. The political organization of the MB I still lacked centralization or the domination of one city.
Afterwards, one ﬁnds a similar trend during the shift from the Roman to the Moslem period. 8 ka BP. Later, and to the present day, these trees completely disappeared and were replaced by Acacia sp. and by tamarisk, indicating an arid to semi-arid habitat (Liphschitz and Waisel, 1974). As already mentioned, this climatic crisis affected the whole Middle East. Neuman and Parpola (1987) found documentary proof of aridization in a reduction of the water level of the Tigris– Euphrates and an increase in salinization (from c.