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Extra info for Concise Chemistry of the Elements
3 shows the energies of 3d and -ts orbitals in the Sc atom for the 3dl4s2 and 3d 2-ls 1 configurations and the ns and (n- l)d orbital energies in the ground states of V and Nb atoms. One can see in this Figure that on passing from d 1s 2 to d 2s 1 and from d 3s 2 to d 4s 1 configuration the d orbital energy increases considerably, that of the s orbital much less. The increase of the d orbital energy with addition of one electron is the resull of increased total energy of repulsion bet\\'een the d electrons.
2. e. to the right in the above list, do not shield the nuclear charge for inner electrons, so that their contribution to S is nothing. 85 for each electron in the n-1 grouping; or I for each electron in the n - 2 and lower groupings. 0. 3 Radii and their changes in the Main-Group elements 22 Slater's rules giYe only approximate \'alues of shielding constants, mainly because penetration of core orbitals by valence electrons is only partly taken into account. Exact \'alues can be obtained from quantum-mechanical calculations.
For instance, in Sec. 1] Valence, hYj>en·alence and oxidation state 45 the case of carbon atom the V4 valence state is a hypothetical state in which each of the sp 3 hybrid orbitals is occupied by one electron. Formation of the valence state requires energy, called promotion energy. The oxidation state of an element in a compound is defined by the oxidation number, which is equal to the number of positive or negative elementary charges which can be attributed to the atom, provided bonds are purely ionic.