By Michael W. Fox
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Well documented and controlled research is needed to accurately measure the effects of light upon animal behavior. Effects of Noise Gamble (1982) emphasizes the fact that exposure of sound can stress animals and the consequences can be apparent for several weeks. Furthermore, the importance of holding purchased animals for a period of time in the experimental situation before use, or using homebred animals in situations as close as possible to those in which they were bred, needs to be recognized.
This is necessary for two reasons. First, on humane grounds: we have ethical responsibilities towards the animals that we use in research. , animals whose physiological and psychological states are not known or are abnormally stressed mean poor research and, conceivably, poor medical applications. The effects of captivity on the behavior of wild animals and the stress effects of cage rearing, social and environmental deprivation, or crowding on domesticated and laboratory animals are of particular importance, especially in terms of the development of abnormal behavior (Hediger 1950; Fox 1968).
And of four monkeys tethered for a month or more, three failed to show heart rate declines to pre-tether levels. Beta-adrenergic blockade demonstrated that this was due to sympathetic arousal. Thus, even if several weeks' habituation are allowed, disturbances from tethering may persist. Cage size has been demonstrated conclusively to be an important factor in environmental enrichment for rodents (Manosevitz and Pryor 1975). This study by psychologists using refined behavioral measures contrasts with a preliminary study of the effects of cage size on physical activity in beagles (Neamand et al.