Polar Oceanography. Physical Science by Walker O. Smith Jr.

By Walker O. Smith Jr.

Polar Oceanography is an built-in synthesis of the organic, actual, geological, and chemical approaches that ensue within the polar oceans. The publication represents the 1st sleek interdisciplinary synthesis during this box

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Mon. Weather Rev. 109: 2323-2336. Clark, R. H. 1970. Observational studies in the atmospheric boundary layer. R. Meteorol. Soc. 96:91-114. Clark, R. H. & G. D. Hess. 1974. Geostrophic departure and the functions A and B of Rossbynumber similarity theory. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7:267-287. Crane, R. G. 1978. Seasonal variations of sea ice extent in the Davis Strait-Labrador Sea area and relationships with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation. Arctic 31: 434-447. 1986. Interactions between turbulence, radiation and microphysics in Arctic stratus clouds.

Drag Coefficients A plot of drag coefficients measured over sea ice in various experiments during the past 20 years has apparently shown an "increase of drag coeffi- Robert A. Brown 34 cient with time" (Fig. 13), although this is evidently a result of measurements being taken over increasingly rough ice, with increasingly unstable stratification, and with better accuracy. In addition, possible effects of baroclinicity and wind speed contribute to uncertainty in measurements. Overland (1985) made a comprehensive survey of measured drag coefficients over ice and the MIZ.

These values are hundreds of watts per square meter, compared with averagefluxesover the solid pack ice during AIDJEX of less than 10 W/m2. These and other heatfluxmeasurements were considered in the model parametrization shown in Fig. 17. Very few heat flux measurements exist, and the trends shown are based on CH behaving like CD in the models. C. Radiation and Clouds The polar regions are the heat sink in the earth's radiation balance. 16 Heat fluxes downstream from the ice edge in a cold-air outbreak from the Arctic Cyclone Experiment.

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