By David H. Guston
With clinical development happening at a wide ranging speed, technological know-how and expertise coverage hasn't ever been extra very important than it truly is at the present time. but there's a very genuine loss of public discourse approximately policy-making, and govt involvement in technological know-how continues to be shrouded in either secret and misunderstanding. who's making offerings approximately know-how coverage, and who stands to win or lose from those choices? What standards are getting used to make judgements and why? Does executive involvement aid or prevent clinical research? Shaping technology and know-how coverage brings jointly a thrilling and various crew of rising students, either practitioners and educational specialists, to enquire present concerns in technology and know-how policy. Essays discover such subject matters as globalization, the moving boundary among private and non-private, educated consent in human participation in clinical study, highbrow estate and collage technological know-how, and the distribution of the prices and merits of research. Contributors: Charlotte Augst, provide Black, Mark Brown, Kevin Elliott, Patrick Feng, Pamela M. Franklin, Carolyn Gideon, Ten? N. Hamilton, Brian A. Jackson, Shobita Parthasarathy, Jason W. Patton, A. Abigail Payne, Bhaven Sampat, Christian Sandvig, Sheryl Winston Smith, Michael Whong-Barr
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Investment Goals and the Federal R&D Portfolio At its most basic, the statement that the goals of an investment need to be defined before it is made is obvious enough to seem uninteresting. However, like the concepts of risk and balance, investment goals can take on a range of different meanings whose implications with respect to investment management are very different. The different usages, which correspond to the level of aggregation at which investments are discussed, range from a “top-down” viewpoint for an entire portfolio, to an intermediate view for parts of portfolios, to a “bottom-up” approach focused on individual investments.
The explicitly goal-based analysis therefore has the potential to Jackson: Federal R&D 41 turn upside down the conventional wisdom that fundamental research is inherently more risky than applied work. It is conceivable that a fundamental research project (aimed primarily at producing new knowledge) could be pursued in an area so obviously rich in potential and poorly understood that there is virtually no risk that it will not pay off in new knowledge. 8 Investment goals may simplify discussion of R&D portfolio balance as well.
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